Ciprofloxacin (Ciprofloxacin) is a class of 2nd generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic that has a wide spectrum, is active against gram-positive and gram-positive bacteria. This antibiotic works by inhibiting the two types of enzymes II topoisomerase that is DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Topoisomerase IV requires separate DNA that has been replicated before bacterial cell division. With DNA that is not separated, the process stops and the bacteria can not divide. While the DNA gyrase is responsible for the supercoil DNA so it will fit inside the newly formed cell. The combination of the two mechanisms above will kill the bacteria so that the ciprofloxacin is classified as bactericidal.
Ciprofloxacin is generally marketed at 250 mg / tablet or 500 mg / tablet. Other preparations may be infusions or drip preparations.
Indication the usefulness of ciprofloxacin is for the treatment of the following conditions: Treatment of respiratory tract infections, urinary tract, gastrointestinal infections, including infections by gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella catarrhalis, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes).
Ciprofloxacin (ciprofloxacin) is also used for infections of the skin and soft tissues, bones and joints, acute gonorrhea and acute osteomyitis. indication Do not use this antibiotic in patients with a history of hypersensitivity or allergy to ciprofloxacin (ciprofloxacin) and other quinolone class antibiotics. Should also not be used for pregnant women and lactating mothers.
Ciprofloxacin (ciprofloxacin) is also contraindicated in patients with epilepsy or other seizure disorders. Should not be given to patients with a history of tendon rupture. Side Effects of ciprofloxacin Most side effects of ciprofloxacin (ciprofloxacin) are mild to moderate which will soon disappear when drug administration is stopped. However, serious side effects sometimes occur.
The most common side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, abnormal liver function tests, vomiting, and rash on the skin. It also increases the risk of tendonitis and tendon rupture, especially in patients over 60, patients taking corticosteroid medications, and patients with kidney, lung, or heart transplantation.
Like other fluoroquinolones, these antibiotics can trigger seizures or lower seizure thresholds, and can cause side effects to other central nervous systems. Headaches, dizziness, and insomnia are also reported quite often. much less frequent events such as tremor, psychosis, anxiety, hallucinations, paranoia, and attempted suicide, especially at higher doses. Very rare but potentially fatal side effects such as toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, cardiac arrest (torsades des pointes or QT extension), allergic pneumonitis, bone marrow suppression, hepatitis or liver failure, and phototoxicity / photosensitivity. The drug should be stopped if the rash, jaundice, or other signs of hypersentitivity occur.