Tuberculosis Lung or tuberculosis is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosi and Mycrobacterium bovis bacteria. The bacteria have a size of 0.5-4 microns x 0.3-0.6, microns with a thin, straight or somewhat crooked, granular or non-sameless shape, but have a thick outer layer composed of lipoids. The disease is transmitted through the air (droplet nuclei) when a TB patient coughs and splashes containing the bacteria are inhaled by others during breathing.


Diphtheria is a rare disease, usually affecting adolescents and adults. The cause of this disease is the bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheria. The disease has two forms: the first Respiratory Type caused by a bacterial strain that produces toxin (toxigenetics) which usually causes severe symptoms to death, whereas the second form of Cutaneous Type caused by both toxigenetic and non-toxigenetic strains is generally mild with inflammation which is not typical. Transmission of this disease occurs through droplets when the sufferer (career) coughs, sneezes, and speaks. However, the dust or vomit of the patient is also biased to be a medium of transmission.


Petrusis is an acute respiratory infection disease that primarily affects children. The disease is caused by bacteria Bordetella pertussis (Haemophilus pertussis). Bordetella pertussis belongs to the Gram-negative, immobile and non-sporadic Cortobacillus group. These bacteria require a medium to grow like a blood-glycerin-potato medium (Bordet-Gengou) which adds penicillin to inhibit the growth of other organisms. This bacterium is 0.5-1μm in length and its diameter is 0.2-0.3μm. Transmission of the disease through droplets and most infants infected by his brother and sometimes by his parents.


Tetanus is a muscle stiffness (spasm) disease caused by exotoxins (tetanospasmin) from tetanus-causing organisms rather than by their own organisms. The disease is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tatani which is a Gram-positive bacterium in the form of a stem with spores on the side of the tip so similar to the drum beater. Tetanus bacteria is anaerobic obligate in the form of vegetative in environment without oxygen and susceptible to heat and disinfectant. The transmission is by Tetanus entering the human body usually through a deep wound with anaerobic atmosphere (without oxygen) as a result of accidents, stab wounds, surgical wounds, dental caries, umbilical cord, etc.

Ciprofloxacin Antibiotics

Ciprofloxacin (Ciprofloxacin) is a class of 2nd generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic that has a wide spectrum, is active against gram-positive and gram-positive bacteria. This antibiotic works by inhibiting the two types of enzymes II topoisomerase that is DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. Topoisomerase IV requires separate DNA that has been replicated before bacterial cell division. With DNA that is not separated, the process stops and the bacteria can not divide. While the DNA gyrase is responsible for the supercoil DNA so it will fit inside the newly formed cell. The combination of the two mechanisms above will kill the bacteria so that the ciprofloxacin is classified as bactericidal.

Ciprofloxacin is generally marketed at 250 mg / tablet or 500 mg / tablet. Other preparations may be infusions or drip preparations.

Indication the usefulness of ciprofloxacin is for the treatment of the following conditions:     Treatment of respiratory tract infections, urinary tract, gastrointestinal infections, including infections by gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella catarrhalis, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes).

Ciprofloxacin (ciprofloxacin) is also used for infections of the skin and soft tissues, bones and joints, acute gonorrhea and acute osteomyitis. indication     Do not use this antibiotic in patients with a history of hypersensitivity or allergy to ciprofloxacin (ciprofloxacin) and other quinolone class antibiotics.    Should also not be used for pregnant women and lactating mothers.

Ciprofloxacin (ciprofloxacin) is also contraindicated in patients with epilepsy or other seizure disorders.    Should not be given to patients with a history of tendon rupture. Side Effects of ciprofloxacin Most side effects of ciprofloxacin (ciprofloxacin) are mild to moderate which will soon disappear when drug administration is stopped. However, serious side effects sometimes occur.

The most common side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, abnormal liver function tests, vomiting, and rash on the skin.    It also increases the risk of tendonitis and tendon rupture, especially in patients over 60, patients taking corticosteroid medications, and patients with kidney, lung, or heart transplantation.

Like other fluoroquinolones, these antibiotics can trigger seizures or lower seizure thresholds, and can cause side effects to other central nervous systems.    Headaches, dizziness, and insomnia are also reported quite often.    much less frequent events such as tremor, psychosis, anxiety, hallucinations, paranoia, and attempted suicide, especially at higher doses.    Very rare but potentially fatal side effects such as toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, cardiac arrest (torsades des pointes or QT extension), allergic pneumonitis, bone marrow suppression, hepatitis or liver failure, and phototoxicity / photosensitivity.    The drug should be stopped if the rash, jaundice, or other signs of hypersentitivity occur.