The Dangers of Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is a disease that affects blood flow in the arteries due to plaques buildup. Plaques consist of fatty substances, cholesterol, calcium, cellular waste products and fibrin. As plaques build up, the artery wall gets thicker, reducing blood flow and oxygen supply to body cells.

Although atherosclerosis is typically associated with the heart, it can affect any of the arteries in the body. Plaques can totally or partially restrict the blood flow to the brain, heart, arms, legs, kidneys or pelvis. Depending on which particular arteries become blocked and its severity, atherosclerosis can result in dangerous complications, among which are:

    • Coronary artery disease. Narrowing of arteries in the heart or those leading to it can result in heart attack, angina and heart failure.
      Carotid artery disease. When plaques are formed in carotid (neck) arteries that deliver blood to the brain, it can lead to a stroke or transient ischemic attack (a near-stroke condition that spontaneously improves for unknown reasons).

 

    • Peripheral artery disease. When atherosclerosis affects arms and legs, the consequences can be a decreased sensitivity to cold and heat, resulting in increased risk of frostbite or burns, and in severe cases, gangrene.

 

    • Aneurysm. Aneurysm or a bulge in the arterial wall can occur anywhere in the body. Aneurysms are especially dangerous because they often produce no symptoms. But if a bulge bursts, it often results in an internal bleeding, which can be life-threatening.

 

    • Chronic kidney disease. Inadequate blood supply to the kidneys can lead to chronic kidney disease and renal failure – serious conditions, which require dialysis.

 

    • Blindness. If atherosclerosis affects the central retinal artery, an eye occlusion can happen. This means a sudden vision loss in one or both eyes.

 

    • Erectile dysfunction. When arteries leading to the genitals are damaged, the amount of blood flow necessary for normal erection and sexual function cannot be delivered to the penis during sexual intercourse.

 

  • Mesenteric artery thrombosis occurs when blood supply to the stomach and intestines necessary for digestion is restricted. This condition can bring on a severe abdominal pain right after a meal.

As you see atherosclerosis is dangerous because it can provoke complications in any body organ. And while it is still unknown how exactly it begins, the three possible causes – high cholesterol, hypertension and smoking- should be kept in mind to significantly lower the risk.

DISEASES CAUSED BACTERIES

  1. TUBERCULOSIS PARU (TBC)

Tuberculosis Lung or tuberculosis is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosi and Mycrobacterium bovis bacteria. The bacteria have a size of 0.5-4 microns x 0.3-0.6, microns with a thin, straight or somewhat crooked, granular or non-sameless shape, but have a thick outer layer composed of lipoids. The disease is transmitted through the air (droplet nuclei) when a TB patient coughs and splashes containing the bacteria are inhaled by others during breathing.

  1. DIFTERIA

Diphtheria is a rare disease, usually affecting adolescents and adults. The cause of this disease is the bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheria. The disease has two forms: the first Respiratory Type caused by a bacterial strain that produces toxin (toxigenetics) which usually causes severe symptoms to death, whereas the second form of Cutaneous Type caused by both toxigenetic and non-toxigenetic strains is generally mild with inflammation which is not typical. Transmission of this disease occurs through droplets when the sufferer (career) coughs, sneezes, and speaks. However, the dust or vomit of the patient is also biased to be a medium of transmission.

  1. PETRISIS

Petrusis is an acute respiratory infection disease that primarily affects children. The disease is caused by bacteria Bordetella pertussis (Haemophilus pertussis). Bordetella pertussis belongs to the Gram-negative, immobile and non-sporadic Cortobacillus group. These bacteria require a medium to grow like a blood-glycerin-potato medium (Bordet-Gengou) which adds penicillin to inhibit the growth of other organisms. This bacterium is 0.5-1μm in length and its diameter is 0.2-0.3μm. Transmission of the disease through droplets and most infants infected by his brother and sometimes by his parents.

  1. TETANUS NEONATORUM

Tetanus is a muscle stiffness (spasm) disease caused by exotoxins (tetanospasmin) from tetanus-causing organisms rather than by their own organisms. The disease is caused by the bacterium Clostridium tatani which is a Gram-positive bacterium in the form of a stem with spores on the side of the tip so similar to the drum beater. Tetanus bacteria is anaerobic obligate in the form of vegetative in environment without oxygen and susceptible to heat and disinfectant. The transmission is by Tetanus entering the human body usually through a deep wound with anaerobic atmosphere (without oxygen) as a result of accidents, stab wounds, surgical wounds, dental caries, umbilical cord, etc.